Cuba já começa a sentir efeitos do aumento do bloqueio norte-americano

O governo cubano diminuiu em pelo menos US$ 100 milhões as compras de alimentos do Brasil desde o início deste ano. “Já deixamos de importar o equivalente a cerca US$ 100 milhões em alimentos, principalmente frango e derivados”, afirmou o encarregado de Negócios de Cuba, embaixador Rolando Gómez. A falta de crédito e o incremento no bloqueio comercial dos Estados Unidos a Cuba estão dificultando ainda mais os negócios entre os dois países.

No início deste ano, o presidente dos Estados Unidos Donald Trump decidiu adotar na sua totalidade uma lei de 1996 que antes vigorava apenas parcialmente. A lei Helms Burton, no Capítulo 3, permite a cidadãos cubano-americanos e até norte-americanos a levar à justiça dos Estados Unidos ações contra empresas apropriadas pelo governo cubano na revolução de 1959. Isso vale também para as empresas europeias.

A maior parte das empresas europeias nacionalizadas após a revolução cubana foi indenizada pelo governo de Cuba. Os Estados Unidos não aceitaram indenização na época.

Segundo informou o embaixador Gómez já há dois processos nos Estados Unidos contra a rede de hotéis Melià, que atua em Cuba, e cruzeiros de navios de turismo.

O encarregado de Negócios de Cuba, embaixador Rolando Gómez. Foto: Claudia Godoy.

“Pelo menos dois processos já foram iniciados nos Estados Unidos contra empresas instaladas em Cuba após o endurecimento de Trump. Um contra a rede de hotéis Melià e outro contra cruzeiros de navios”, disse o diplomata cubano no Brasil. Mas, segundo Gómez, o governo cubano não reconhece os processos. “Consideramos ilegítimos”, afirmou.

Os carros antigos de Havana, Cuba. Foto: divulgação.

A lei Helms Burton já proibia negócios de cidadãos norte-americanos com o governo cubano. “Há proibição de viagens para Cuba. Eles podem ir até para a Coreia do Norte e para a China, mas não podem ir para Cuba”, disse Gómez.

O encarregado de Negócios diz haver uma nova escalada agressiva contra Cuba. “Os passos de Obama (o ex-presidente Barack Obama) foram apagados, apesar de ele não ter deixado de aplicar o bloqueio no seu nível máximo. Mas ele chegou a visitar Cuba, em 2016, como também Raul Castro (presidente cubano à época) também foi aos Estados Unidos, em 2015, para a Assembleia Geral da ONU (Nações Unidas)”, lembrou o diplomata cubano. “Eles insistem em impedir o nosso comércio com o mundo, nos impondo sérias limitações.”, informou Gómez.

Moradora cubana. Foto: divulgação.

Cuba importa do Brasil frango e derivados, como linguiças, arroz, soja e milho. Eles nos vendem produtos biotecnológicos, como a eritroproietina, um produto utilizado nos medicamentos utilizados para doentes com problemas imunológicos. Além disso, eles vendem ao Brasil medicamentos veterinários.

Indústria brasileira de abate de frango. Foto: Agência Brasil.

A balança comercial entre Brasil e Cuba é favorável aos brasileiros. Historicamente, os cubanos sempre compraram mais do que venderam ao Brasil, mas nos últimos três anos as trocas comerciais bilaterais caíram muito. A média de volume de comércio entre os dois países é de cerca de US$ 500 milhões nos últimos três anos. Deste total, as exportações brasileiras para Cuba ficaram entre US$ 300 e US$ 400 milhões enquanto as vendas dos cubanos para o Brasil estiveram entre US$ 100 milhões e US$ 200 milhões.

Este ano, com o incremento do bloqueio norte-americano, o país parece enfrentar dificuldades ainda maiores. No ano passado, as importações cubanas do Brasil somaram US$ 342,8 milhões e as exportações cerca de US$ 33 milhões. Já nos primeiros meses deste ano, as compras cubanas do Brasil somam apenas US$ 102,5 milhões e as vendas US$ 1,425 milhão. “Já há afetação em Cuba. Com mais dificuldades de importação, já temos escassez de produtos, como o frango brasileiro, por exemplo”, disse o encarregado de Negócios de Cuba, embaixador Rolando Gómez.

Author: Claudia Godoy

Jornalista e fotógrafa, atuei na cobertura de imprensa nos Ministérios da Fazenda, Agricultura, Planejamento, Indústria e Comércio, Relações Exteriores, Saúde, Educação, além de Congresso Nacional, Palácio do Planalto e Banco Central. Também repórter e produtora de rádio e tv.

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